The Guomindang, The Communist Party And Leninism

Founded in 1912, the Guomindang (中國國民黨, literally China National People's Party) is the oldest still active political party in the Chinese-speaking world. It constituted the first elected majority in the Chinese National Assembly of 1913. After Yuan Shikai's coup d'etat, the Guomindang devoted itself to the mission of reunifying China, defeating the warlords, and defending the country's territorial integrity … Continue reading The Guomindang, The Communist Party And Leninism

Provisional Constitution Of The Republic Of China (1931)

The following text is the Provisional Constitution (約法) of the Republic of China as adopted by the National People's Convention (國民會議) on May 12, 1931. The Provisional Constitution included Sun Yat-sen's principle of "political tutelage", de facto providing the Guomindang government with dictatorial powers. The Constitution remained in effect until 1936, when the government promulgated a new … Continue reading Provisional Constitution Of The Republic Of China (1931)

Law In Post-Mao China: Confucianism, Legalism, Imperial Traditions

In the previous post we have described the similarities and differences between Maoism and Legalism, and in particular we have shown the parallels between Maoist and Legalist doctrines regarding the establishment of an autocratic, centralised state. Moreover, we have demonstrated that Mao Zedong rejected Confucian values, which he viewed as "reactionary". In this post we … Continue reading Law In Post-Mao China: Confucianism, Legalism, Imperial Traditions

Mao Zedong, Legalism and Confucianism – Similarities And Differences

When Mao Zedong proclaimed the founding of the People's Republic of China (PRC) on October 1, 1949, the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) stood before the tremendous task of rebuilding the state on the basis of Soviet-style Communist principles. Yet despite their desire to create a new China, Communist leaders drew on old political and social … Continue reading Mao Zedong, Legalism and Confucianism – Similarities And Differences

China’s Legal System And The “Ten Abominations”

Before the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty in 1911, China's legal system differed from that of liberal Western states in three major aspects: First, the apex of the entire legal system was the absolute monarch; it was the emperor who issued and abolished laws, and the most serious crimes of the legal code were those … Continue reading China’s Legal System And The “Ten Abominations”

Law In Imperial China – Confucianism And Legalism

The legal system of imperial China developed from two schools of thought: Confucianism and Legalism. Although both of them exerted a deep influence on China's state-building as well as on its moral and legal traditions, at the beginning these two philosophies were bitterly opposed to each other, as they were based on entirely different principles … Continue reading Law In Imperial China – Confucianism And Legalism

China’s Legal System – Communist or Feudal?

    On October 13, 2014, Yu Wensheng, a lawyer from Beijing, was arrested and detained by the police for 99 days . He was interrogated approximately 200 hundred times by 10 officers who worked in shifts night and day. Yu's wrists were fastened behind his back with handcuffs.  "My hands were swollen and I … Continue reading China’s Legal System – Communist or Feudal?

Memorial Arches, State, and Family Virtues in Imperial China

In imperial China the family was the nucleus of social order and state ideology. Unlike its Western counterpart, the Chinese family was not simply a social unit; it was an institution that over the centuries gave rise to an ideology that permeated the lives of every individual and shaped the structure of the state.    … Continue reading Memorial Arches, State, and Family Virtues in Imperial China

The Chinese Revolution of 1911 – The Founding of the Republic of China

The Chinese Revolution of 1911, also called Xinhai Revolution (辛亥革命) after the year of the Chinese calendar in which it occurred, was an uprising that led to the fall of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) and to the foundation of the Republic of China (中華民國, ROC). The revolt began on October 9th when the accidental explosion of … Continue reading The Chinese Revolution of 1911 – The Founding of the Republic of China

Propriety and Ritualism in Chinese Society

To many Westerners China seems a mysterious and unfathomable country, and the behaviour and mindset of her people almost impenetrable. One thing that appears to have been puzzling Western observers for decades is the question of moral values and interpersonal relationships in Chinese society.   Among East Asian nations, China is the one that conceals … Continue reading Propriety and Ritualism in Chinese Society